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La necesidad de cooperación es especialmente intensa en la Unión Europea. Los ciudadanos de la Unión Europea se ven obligados a menudo a relacionarse con las administraciones de otros Estados miembros distintos del suyo propio; las administraciones de los distintos Estados miembros deben cooperar unas con otras para resolver problemas de los ciudadanos, así como con las instituciones comunitarias para cuestiones relativas a políticas comunes. La interoperabilidad es un elemento indispensable para la cooperación y, en concreto, para la realización práctica de los servicios públicos digitales transfronterizos.

En este contexto comunitario la interoperabilidad es relevante en general para la realización del principio de solo una vez (once-only principle) y de forma específica para áreas tales como mercado interior, medio ambiente, justicia, aduanas, fiscalidad, sanidad, salud alimentaria, fondos europeos, información del sector público, identidad electrónica, estandarización TIC, estadística y contratación pública.

Consequently, the achievement of interoperability between administrations is considered in the European Union as an essential aspect to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the provision of services, while sharing and reuse interoperability solutions that already exist can help contain the multiplication of costs. This important role of interoperability comes up in various Community acts as, among the most recent, the European Framework of interoperability (Opens in new window) , Tallin Ministerial declaration , Decision ISA ² (Opens in new window) and Action Plan of electronic administration 2016-2020 (Opens in new window) among other players.

In particular, the Ministerial declaration of electronic administration of Tallin , adoptada el 6 de octubre de 2017, refuerza el compromiso con los principios del Action Plan of electronic administration 2016-2020 (Opens in new window) and includes among its lines of action those relating to the principle of only once and interoperability by default, to promote, essentially, reuse of data in the primary records, as well as solutions from both the EU ( CEF Telecom and ISA ² (Opens in new window) ), as the administrations of member states.

Contribuyen particularmente a la interoperabilidad en la UE las acciones del program ISA ² (Opens in new window) , digital services and infrastructure basic components (building blocks) result of the instrument Telecom CEF (Opens in new window) as well as other ongoing proceedings as the normalization TIC.

The Program ISA ² (Opens in new window)  (Soluciones de interoperabilidad y marcos comunes para las administraciones públicas, las empresas y los ciudadanos europeos) vigente en el período 2016-2020, continúa la labor de programas previos (IDA, IDA II, IDABC, ISA) para promover la interoperabilidad en la UE; facilitar una interacción electrónica transfronteriza o intersectorial eficiente y eficaz tanto entre las AA.PP. europeas como entre ellas y las empresas y los ciudadanos, y contribuir al desarrollo de una administración electrónica más eficaz, simplificada y orientada a los usuarios en los niveles nacional, regional y local de la administración pública; promover soluciones de interoperabilidad que faciliten la ejecución de las políticas y actividades de la Unión; y facilitar la reutilización de las soluciones de interoperabilidad por parte de las AA.PP. europeas.
 
ISA ² (Opens in new window) with its financing promotes an extensive collection of actions that include:

  • mantenimiento de la estrategia, el marco y la arquitectura europea de interoperabilidad;
  • promotion of interoperability solutions existing and new and reuse;
  • mechanisms to quantify cost savings due to the interoperability;
  • detection of legislative gaps on interoperability and assessing the implications of the TIC Community legislation.

The Observatory national frameworks of interoperability ( NIFO – National Interoperability Framework Observatory (Opens in new window) ) is an action of Program ISA ² (Opens in new window)   (Opens in new window) that tracks by European countries of the following issues:

  1. The main activities on interoperability.
  2. The national interoperability framework.
  3. Alignment with the European Framework of interoperability (Opens in new window) .
  4. Other initiatives on interoperability.

For each country prepares a tab (Opens in new window) a partir del análisis del marco de interoperabilidad correspondiente y de las actividades relacionadas a través de un modelo analítico que persigue mostrar el estado del arte.

The European Union launched in 2013 ‘ Connect Europa ’ mechanism (Connecting Europe Facility – CEF (Opens in new window) ) to finance the deployment of infrastructure pan-europeas for interconnection of member states in the fields of energy, transport and telecommunications. The domain of telecommunications, known as Telecom CEF (Opens in new window) , financia el desarrollo de las infraestructuras de servicios digitales cuyo propósito es permitir interacciones digitales entre autoridades públicas ciudadanos y empresas a través de plataformas de interacción normalizadas, transfronterizas y fáciles de utilizar.

The infrastructure of digital services that have a more sectoral nature are: access to digital resources of European heritage; services infrastructure for a safer internet; European platform for the interconnection of business registers Europeans; access to public sector information reusable; and online services transboundary interoperable (in areas of justice, social security, etc.).
 
In addition, certain infrastructure of digital services have the character of ‘ basic components. These components elementary, are: electronic identification and authentication; electronic delivery of documents; automatic translation; cybersecurity; and electronic invoicing and electronic file.

The European policy of normalization TIC is also a tool for achieving interoperability. Is exercised through the Regulation (HAT) No 1025/2012 (Opens in new window) on European standardisation and platform European Multi-stakeholder Platform on ICT Standardisation (MSP-ICT) (Opens in new window) who advises the commission, particularly in relation to the identification of technical specifications (Opens in new window) that may be referenced in public procurement.
 

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