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General concepts of WCAG 2.0

A cualquier tecnología con la que se pueda crear contenido accesible y no únicamente a tecnologías W3C.

Algunas partes de las WCAG 1.0 no se adaptaban del todo bien a las situaciones actuales haciendo que, en ciertos aspectos, hayan quedado obsoletas. La versión 2.0 incorpora toda la experiencia adquirida desde que la versión 1.0 salió a la luz y tiene en cuenta que las tecnologías web han avanzado a lo largo de los últimos años y seguirán haciéndolo en el futuro.

Las WCAG 2.0 se han desarrollado con la intención de ser perdurables, proporcionando así un estándar web estable en el tiempo. Para lograrlo, se ha eliminado cualquier aspecto relativo a tecnologías específicas. El objetivo es que las WCAG 2.0 sean independientes de la tecnología, usando un lenguaje neutro sin referencias a tecnologías específicas.

Therefore, the accessibility standards Web content accessibility guidelines (WCAG) 2.0, due to their abstraction, apply both to the W3C technologies and technologies developed outside the W3C. Moreover, there are also applicable to both web technologies present and future.

The WCAG 2.0 are structured as follows:


Principles

The WCAG 2.0 are organized into four principles that shape on fundamental concepts underlying accessibility: Visible, Operable, Understandable and robust.

  • Visible: Information and user interface components need to be presented to users so that they can receive.
  • Operable: The user interface components and navigation must be operables.
  • Understandable: information and the handling of the user interface should be understandable.
  • Robusto: El contenido debe ser lo suficientemente robusto como para que pueda ser interpretado de forma fidedigna por una amplia variedad de agentes de usuario, incluyendo los productos de apoyo.
     

Patterns

Dentro de cada principio se encuentran las pautas de accesibilidad. Estas pautas constituyen los objetivos básicos que debemos cumplir para lograr un sitio web accesible.

Criteria in accordance

Cada pauta contiene a su vez una serie de criterios de conformidad, o requisitos concretos para cumplir las pautas. Estos criterios de conformidad son testeables y se incluyen para permitir que las WCAG 2.0 se puedan usar como referencia cuando sea necesario establecer requisitos de accesibilidad para guías o políticas de diseño, normativas y/o requisitos legales. Es importante señalar que las pautas no son testeables y sólo proporcionan los objetivos generales que permiten a los desarrolladores comprender los criterios de conformidad.

Unlike the WCAG 1.0, in version 2.0 does not define priorities but speaks directly from levels of conformity.

Each criterion is assigned a level of compliance on how to affect the accessibility of a website if that approach is not met. That is, depending on the impact on affordability.

There are three levels in accordance:

  • The criteria of level are of utmost importance in terms of accessibility to the end, which is basic prerequisites for some users can use the Web.
  • The criteria for level AA must be observed if we want to remove major barriers to accessibility.
  • Los criterios de nivel AAA son los de menor importancia, pero si se cumplen confieren a la Web un buen nivel de accesibilidad.

 

The WCAG 2.0 tft incorporate the concept " consistent with the accessibility ".

A technology is " consistent with the accessibility " si dispone de las características necesarias para generar contenido accesible y además los navegadores, aplicaciones de usuario y productos de apoyo existentes son capaces de comprender dicha tecnología y proporcionar la información de forma accesible a los usuarios que la requieran.

This can be better understood with a simple example. For example, HTML allows alternative texts to the images through the alt attribute and screen readers are able to see that text and read it aloud the blind. The same applies to the rest of accessibility features of HTML.

Thus, for example, other technology that is also compatible with the accessibility is the PDF format and consists of numerous characteristics in order to generate PDF documents accessible and interpretable by support outputs as screen readers.

En las WCAG 2.0 no se restringe el uso de tecnologías web únicamente a las tecnologías propias del W3C, sino que permite usar cualquier tecnología web que sea consistent with the accessibility on the assumption that:

  • The technology used in an accessible way : how used has been tested and is compatible with the support outputs employees by users.
  • Available browsers, applications and user support outputs that support such technology: that is, the user applications must have native support for the accessibility features of technology, be widely disseminated or be available for download or shop at the same ease and price for persons with disabilities and for a person without a disability. The same is true that required a plugin for access to technology.

Thus, apart from W3C standards for the creation of web pages (HTML, XHTML, CSS, etc.) are no further technologies that create accessible content. For example, you may create accessible documents in PDF format or using JavaScript following a series of good practices to generate content accessible.

Yes, but with certain conditions. You can use technologies that are not as long as they are not dependent on them. That is accessible alternatives to the content included on technologies that are not used or not accessible.

For example, you can include a PDF document which has not been created in a manner accessible or in a different format that is not compatible with the accessibility. However, in this case it is necessary to provide the same information in an accessible, for example through HTML and CSS.

No, it is not enough. In Addition, the content is not accessible cannot interfere with the rest of the contents of the page. For example, a Flash animation unreachable can have an alternative text but the animation in itself, even taking alternative, may not contain flashes which can lead to attacks on people with epilepsy fotosensitiva.

Thus, there are a number of criteria in accordance to apply to all of the content of the page, although it is not accessible but with an accessible alternative, because a bug in any of these criteria could interfere with the use of any page.

These criteria in accordance with “ non-interference ” require that:

  • Any content that may cause flashes epileptic seizures
  • No content to generate a trap for the keyboard focus. In other words, no content may stop using the keyboard tab.
  • Ningún contenido contendrá movimientos o parpadeos que puedan desorientar a los usuarios o al menos se proporciona un mecanismo para detenerlos o desactivarlos.
  • No content reproduce an audio that might interfere with screen readers, or audio stop in a few seconds or provides a mechanism accessible to stop it or to control their reproduction.
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